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Trade associations in Kazakhstan

European Commission Directorate-General for Trade


Trade picture

  • The EU-Kazakhstan bilateral trade and economic relations have been growing steadily since 2002.
  • The EU has progressively become Kazakhstan's first trade partner, with almost 40% share in its total external trade. Kazakhstan's exports to the EU are heavily dominated by oil and gas which account for more than 80% of the country's total exports. Exports from the EU are dominated by machinery and transport equipment, as well as products within the manufacturing and chemicals sectors. Imports from Kazakhstan substantially exceed EU exports to Kazakhstan.
  • Kazakhstan's importance as an oil and gas supplier to the EU is growing. Kazakhstan has benefited from very strong Foreign Direct Investment flows in recent years, largely to its booming oil and gas sector. Almost half of the Foreign Direct Investment inflow originates from the EU.

EU-Kazakhstan "trade in goods" statistics

Trade in goods 2012-2014, € billions
Year EU imports EU exports Balance
2012 24.6 6.9 -17.6
2013 23.9 7.5 -16.4
2014 6.8 -17.1

EU-Kazakhstan "trade in services" statistics

Trade in services 2011-2013, € billions
2011 1.1 2.3 1.2
1.0 2.5 1.5
2.7 1.6

Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment 2013, € billions
Year Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance
15.6 51.2 35.6

Kazakhstan & the WTO

  • As Kazakhstan is not yet a member of the WTO, trade in a certain number of key products between the EU and Kazakhstan is governed by bilateral or autonomous agreements.
  • Kazakhstan is in the process of working towards accession to the WTO, with the strong support of the EU.

In November 2011, the EU and Kazakhstan opened the negotiations of a new, enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement replacing the 1999 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, with the aim to further strengthen the bilateral relations. The enhanced agreement, once concluded, will bring about better conditions for the trade and investment relations between the two parties.

Since the expiry of the EC-Kazakhstan steel agreement at the end of 2006, the bilateral trade in steel has been based on autonomous measures. Once signed, a new agreement will replace these measures.

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What are trade associations responsible for.

providing health-care coverage for their workers

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