Main problems faced by children in Kazakstan:
The prevention of abuse and sexual abuse remains insufficient and lacks professional attention. Such punishments are tolerated in foster homes, military schools and in the workplace. Schools are the only place in which corporal punishment is prohibited.
Although mistreatment is becoming rarer, it remains a regular occurrence in boarding schools, foster homes, prisons and detention centres.
Furthermore, children who are victims of such violence do not have easy access to adequate complaint mechanisms.
The situation of handicapped children in Kazakhstan has improved thanks to the increased allocation of State funding to the issue and to the improved training of professionals, especially in community centres.
Nevertheless, numerous handicapped children are automatically placed in mal-equipped boarding schools. Only one third of the countryâ€™s 153 000 handicapped children have access to specialized teaching programmes.
Moreover, there is little awareness of specialized development and communication practices that can be used with handicapped children. General information on the matter and special measures to help affected parents are also lacking.
The State has instituted public health programmes to improve the conditions of babies and children. In spite of this effort, these programmes remain largely inaccessible and abide by a mediocre standard in rural areas. These programmes also carry higher rates of infant mortality.
Parallel to the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, adolescents continue to be victims of drug, alcohol and tobacco consumption. Sadly, there are also no structures to help young pregnant women.
The level of HIV/Aids contamination remains relatively low but it is rising at an alarming rate. Transmission from an HIV positive mother to her child is primarily to blame, as is intravenous drug use, mainly due to the significant amount of Heroin that is trafficked in the country.
The quality of teaching is improving thanks to an increase in State funding and to the extension of obligatory schooling.
Free schooling however remains an exception and the quality of education differs across regions.
Access to the internet is improving and is helping raise educational levels. However the dangers linked to inappropriate content and to certain media are not regulated enough.
Refugee children often live in highly precarious conditions with no special assistance accorded to them. Access to health care and education is rare and these children are rarely officially registered.