Kazakhstan is a nation in Central Asia and the world's biggest landlocked area in terms of land area. Kazakhstan is bordered by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgzstan, China, Russia, and the Caspian Sea. In 2015, Kazakhstan has an estimated population of 16.86 million, which ranks 65th in the world.
The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana, which has a population of 835, 000. Astana is the second-largest city in Kazakhstan; the largest is Almaty, the former capital, which is also the cultural and commercial center. Almaty has a population of 1.55 million people with a density of 2, 300 people per square kilometer (5, 900/square mile). Kazakhstan as a whole has a density of 6 people per square kilometer (15/square mile), which ranks 227th in the world.
The ethnic majority of the country is the ethnic Kazakhs (63.1%), although there are a large number of other ethnicities present as well, such as ethnic Russians (23.7%), Uzbeks (2.9%), Ukrainians (2.1%), Uygurs (1.4%), Tatars (1.3%) and Germans (1.1%).
Some minority groups in Kazakhstan, including Germans, Ukranians, Chechens, Koreans, and Meskhetian Turks were deported to Kazakhstan in the 1930s and 1940s by Stalin as Russian political opponents.
At the end of the 1980s, ethnic Russians were at almost 38% of the population while Kazakhs were in a majority in just 7 of the country's 20 regions. There were also 1 million Germans in Kazakhstan prior to 1991. After the Soviet Union dissolved, most emigrated to Germany. Emigration of Russians and Germans returned indigenous Kazakhs to a majority in the country.
70% of people in Kazakhstan are Muslim while 26% are Christian.
The overall life expectancy in Kazakhstan is 69.63 years, although there is a marked difference in life expectancies for males and females if looked at separately. For males, the life expectancy is around 64.34 years, while the females have a life expectancy of 74.59 years. This shows that with advanced age, the sex ratio in Kazakhstan is more encouraging towards women in the country.